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LIVING LANGUAGES 
Arawak 

In i594-95> three years before Jan de Laet's wordlists were collected 
in Trinidad, Robert Dudley and Captain Wyatt recorded near Punta 
Carao in the southwest of the same island lists containing, respectively, 
sixty-seven and twenty-seven items of a language which Wyatt called 
"Aroaca, sermo Indianus,*' There can be little doubt that this language is to 
be identified with that now called Arawak or Lokono, still spoken by several 
thousand Indians in Surinam and British Guiana (Guyana). Forty of 
these words are given below, together with a few recorded about the same 
time "near the mouths of the river Orinoco" by Vazquez de Espinosa, 
and opposite them are listed their equivalents (and a few only near 
equivalents) as recorded in 1968 by me in Surinam. (The complete list 
may be found in Taylor 1957, and, for Dudley and Wyatt, in Warner 
1899.) It should be noted that Arawak forms beginning in d(ay are 
possessed by first person singular *my', and those beginning in w(a)- or 
o(a>-, by the first person plural 'our'. (For the phonemes of modem 
Arawak, see below, p. 134, and Taylor 1969, 1970, 1976.) 

Surinam, 1968 



Trinidad, J 594-98 

(D = Dudley. W = Wyatt, 
L B de Laet, V s Vazquez de Espinosa) 
dadena (D) 

semaro (D), symare (L) 
marrahabo (D), semarape (L) 
hacuUe (D) 
caUit(D) 

dudica (D), dadica (W), wadycke (L) 
dacosi (D), dacasi (W), wackosije (L) 
dadboh (W) 
hickct (D), iquigi (V) 
dacutti (D), dackosye (L) 
viauite (V) 

dabarra (D), dabarah (W) 
dacan, dacabbo (D), dacabo (W) 



Cioss 



dadina 


arm 


^n^atL 


arrow 


simar&bo 


bow 


hikili 


bowstring 


kh^ 


cassava 


dadfke, oadike 


ear 


dak6si, oak6si 


eye 


daslbo 


face 


hfkihi 


fire 


dakdti 


foot 


bibithi 


four 


dabdra 


hair 


dakhdbo 


hand 



23 AMERINDIAN LANGUAGES OF THE WEST INDIES 



Tnnithd, 1594-98 


Surinam, 1968 


Gloss 


dacy (W), wass^ehe (L) 


dasi, oasi 


head 


dacurle (D) 


dak6ro 


knee 


ycddola (D), edu61a (W) 


iad6ala 


knife 


daddano (D), dadane (L) 


dad^ma 


leg 


maurisse 


m&risi 


maize 


cattle (D), cattchcc (L) 


kdthi 


moon 


saeckee(L) 


s^Uw'utenis; 
eggshell* 


mother 


dalacoak (D), dalardcoh (W), dalerocke (L) 


daliroko 


mouth 


dabodda (D), daMdoh (W) 


dab&da 


nail, claw 


dadrcy (W), wassycrii (L) 


dasiiri, oasiiri 


nose 


abariia (V) 


ab&(ro) 


one 


beklaro (D) 


haararo 


pot spoon 


arguecona, arkeano 0>), arkekano (W) 


arikiko^a 


scissors 


weeuah (D), wecuah (W) 


oioa 'star' 


sky 


daditeOO 


d&ithi(< d&dithi) 


son 


addehegaeno (D) 


adikhikotoa 


spyglass 


sibath (D) 


dba 


stone 


haddaUe (D), hadalcy (W), adaly (L) 


hidaU 


sun 


halete(D) 


hAlithi 


sweet potato 


cabuinOO 


kAbtin 


three 


urat (D), uree (W) 


i^ 


tobacco 


diU (« diee?) 


daide 


tongue 


arehch (D). dary (W), darii (L) 


ailhi,ddri 


todth 


addoth (D), adda (W), hada <L) 


Ada 


tree 


viamaOO 


biama, bian 


two 


guine (V), oronuic (D) 


dni •rain', oniAbo 
•water' 


water 


sake](D) 


s^kili *be Is 
weU/^>od*^ 


it is well 



Most probably printer's errors, in Dudley's list, are "dill' for "diee" 
(the spelling Dudley might well have used for /daice/ *my tongue') and 
"dalacoak' for "dalaroka" (/dal^roko/ 'my mouth'). Ckarly innovations 
are the words for 'scissors' and 'spyglass', made up of the verb stems 
meaning, respectively, 'cut' and 'see' together with an instrumental 
suffix -kodna (cf. Island-Carib, which, for 'scissors', borrowed Sp. 
tijeras as IC sirasi). The word given in De Laet's publication for 'mother' 
is a compound of A sa- 'child, offspring; egg' and -ke {ike) 'container'. 
Cognate with this latter is IC dcae (modem /dgai/) 'container', which 
served and serves tq^ designate the physiological as distinct from the 
sociological mother (Mo, MoSi, MoFaBrDa, etc.). Finally, Dudley's, 
Wyatt's, and De Laet's lists include— besides </(a> 'my; me; I* (common 
to Arawak and Taino) — ^words for 'mouth' and 'sun', cognate equivalents 
of which are attested for no other language but Arawak. 

* The Arawak word has male-human gender (-//) and cannot therefore refer to 'it', 
although Dudley's gloss has 'it is well*. 



Taylor, Douglas. 1977. Languages of the West Indies. 
Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.